How Science Fails to Recognize Initial Conditions

Science relies heavily on replication—the ability to repeat phenomena given the same inputs and conditions. If a phenomenon cannot be replicated, then one unavoidable possibility is that the initial conditions have not yet been replicated. The only other possibility is that the known conditions were not causally linked, so it’s likely the phenomenon will never … More How Science Fails to Recognize Initial Conditions

Certainty — The Crutch of ‘Knowing it Can Be Done’

Is certainty a crutch? Sometimes it can be. It depends on how that certainty is formed. When Chuck Yeager broke the sound barrier in 1947, many of his fellow pilots were decidedly uncertain it could be done. Some suggested that he should be fully insured. A few of his peers had already died trying. There … More Certainty — The Crutch of ‘Knowing it Can Be Done’